Our methods

Methods at a glance

1. Study identification

  • Daily searches of >25 bibliographic and grey literature databases from Monday to Friday

  • Monthly searches of 6 Chinese databases 

2. Data abstraction

  • Screening and data abstraction by trained and internally calibrated extractors, using standardized extraction forms independently and in duplicate

  • Assessment of risk of bias of included randomized controlled trials using Cochrane's RoB 2.0 independently and in duplicate

3. Data analysis

  • Inclusion of interventions with ≥100 patients randomized to treatment or at least 20 events in intervention per outcome

  • Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis using empirical priors

  • Ancillary analyses to investigate subgroup and dose effects

4. Assessing certainty of the evidence

  • GRADE approach

  • Minimally contextualized framework for assessing imprecision and making conclusions

5. Informing recommendations

  • Evidence summaries used to inform BMJ Rapid Recommendations and WHO Recommendations

Read our complete living systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol below.
Please note that this was published as a supplement to our original manuscript, here.