Corticosteroids and interleukin-6 inhibitors probably confer important beneﬁts in patients with severe covid-19. Janus kinase inhibitors appear to have promising beneﬁts, but certainty is low. Azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir- ritonavir, and interferon-beta do not appear to have any important beneﬁts. Whether or not remdesivir, ivermectin, and other drugs confer any patient-important beneﬁt remains uncertain.
Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis has trivial to no eﬀect on hospital admission and mortality, probably increases adverse eﬀects, and probably does not reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of serious risk of bias and very serious imprecision, it is highly uncertain whether ivermectin combined with iota-carrageenan and ivermectin alone reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
In patients with non-severe covid-19, casirivimab/imdevimab probably reduces hospitalization; bamlanivimab/etesevimab, bamlanivimab, and sotrovimab may reduce hospitalization. Convalescent plasma, IVIG, and other antibody and cellular interventions may not confer any meaningful benefit.