COVID-19 living
network meta-analysis

Drugs, antibodies, and cellular therapies for
treatment and prophylaxis against COVID-19

Drug
Treatments

Corticosteroids and interleukin-6 inhibitors probably confer important benefits in patients with severe covid-19. Janus kinase inhibitors appear to have promising benefits, but certainty is low. Azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir- ritonavir, and interferon-beta do not appear to have any important benefits. Whether or not remdesivir, ivermectin, and other drugs confer any patient-important benefit remains uncertain.

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76.6k

Patients

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196

studies

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84

Interventions

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19

outcomes

Select an intervention or specify a treatment comparison to view the summary of findings table

View efficacy and safety of all drug treatments compared to standard care

Prophylaxis

Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis has trivial to no effect on hospital admission and mortality, probably increases adverse effects, and probably does not reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of serious risk of bias and very serious imprecision, it is highly uncertain whether ivermectin combined with iota-carrageenan and ivermectin alone reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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6.2k

Patients

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7

studies

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4

Interventions

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6

outcomes

Select an intervention or specify a treatment comparison to view the summary of findings table

View efficacy and safety of all prophylactic interventions compared to standard care

Antibodies &
Cellular Therapies

In patients with non-severe covid-19, casirivimab/imdevimab probably reduces hospitalization; bamlanivimab/etesevimab, bamlanivimab, and sotrovimab may reduce hospitalization. Convalescent plasma, IVIG, and other antibody and cellular interventions may not confer any meaningful benefit.

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38.3k

Patients

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48

studies

image__patients

15

Interventions

image__patients

14

outcomes

Select an intervention or specify a treatment comparison to view the summary of findings table

View efficacy and safety of all antibodies and cellular therapies compared to standard care

This website provides up-to-date information about the use of pharmaceuticals, antiviral antibodies, and blood products in treatment and prevention of COVID-19. The evidence presented is the joint effort of an international group of researchers. The core group is based at McMaster University, and collaborates closely with the Magic Evidence Ecosystem Foundation and The BMJ. We also work independently of, but in collaboration with, the World Health Organization.

This work is partially funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research operating grants VR4-172738 and MM1-174897.